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December 2009

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High-protein diet effects

 

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Folic acid cancer risk

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Sweet, short life on a sugary diet

 

October 2009

Smoking health hazards: no dose-response

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Asthma risk and waist size in women

 

September 2009

Antioxidants' melanoma risk: 4-fold or none?

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July 2009

Asthma solution - between two opposites that don't attract

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Hodgkin's lymphoma in children: better alternatives

 

June 2009

Hodgkin's, kids, and the abuse of power

Efficacy and safety of the conventional treatment for Hodgkin's:
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Long-term mortality and morbidity after conventional treatments for pediatric Hodgkin's

 

May 2009

Late health effects of the toxicity of the conventional treatment for Hodgkin's

Daniel's true 5-year chances with the conventional treatment for Hodgkin's

Daniel Hauser Hodgkin's case: child protection or medical oppression?

April 2009

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EMF health threat and the politics of status quo
 

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EMF safety standards: are they safe?

Power-frequency field exposure
 

February 2009

Electricity and health

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January 2009

Pneumococcal vaccine for adults useless?

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HRT shrinks brains

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YOUR BODY    HEALTH RECIPE    NUTRITION    TOXINS    SYMPTOMS
            6 

Glycemic index and glycemic load

Glycemic index and glycemic load are the measure of food's potential to rise body's blood glucose level. They are a handy tool for making sure that your diet avoids both, chronic excess and unhealthy surges in blood glucose level.

Glucose metabolism is key energy source for the body, enabling it to keep functioning from one moment to another. It is no wonder that glucose blood level can profoundly affect body functioning; too little means starvation and death, too much - health trouble and shorter lifespan. A healthy diet should keep it from becoming chronically high, as well as from having frequent surges.

Glucose being sugar means that foods with the greatest potential to shift blood glucose levels up are those rich in carbohydrates, particularly in sugars and/or highly processed, refined complex carbohydrates. They are converted into glucose too quickly, forcing the body to react and adjust. If occurring regularly, for prolonged periods of time, this can wear out body organs, like pancreas, resulting in

insulin insensitivity and diabetes.

It can also negatively affect other body functions in unpredictable, complex ways, down to the cellular level.

Not all carbohydrates are created equal; some have higher conversion rate to glucose than others. For that reason, glucose-rising potential varies from one food to another. It is expressed as a numerical value, called glycemic index. The bigger number, the higher conversion rate to glucose for the food.

But the effect on glucose level also depends on the quantity of food carbohydrate content; high glycemic index alone will not produce significant effect if carbohydrate content of food - i.e. amount of its carbohydrates consumed - is low. In order to factor in both, glycemic index of food's carbohydrates and their relative content, a more complete measure, called glycemic load, is used.

Glycemic load of a particular food is usually obtained by dividing its glycemic index by 100, and multiplying it with food's carbohydrate content in grams. It indicates the actual glucose-rising potential of food for a given quantity.

Following table lists glycemic index (GI, glucose=100) and glycemic load (GL) for some common foods. Glycemic load is given for 100g of food, so that different foods can be directly compared with respect to their glucose-rising potential. The % carb. column gives gives percentage of carbohydrates by weight; numerically it equals grams of carbohydrates in 100g of food.

Foods with glycemic load value 25<GL<50 are color coded as "high" and those with loads over 50 as "very high" in glucose-rising potential.

GI=glycemic index  GL=glycemic load, ___ high  ___ very high

FOODS

GI

%carb.

GL/100g

BAKERY PRODUCTS

 

 

 

 Banana cake, made with sugar

47

48

23

Banana cake, made without sugar

55

36

20

Croissant

67

46

30

Doughnut, cake type

76

49

36

Blueberry muffin

59

51

30

Carrot muffin

62

56

35

Corn muffin, low-amylose

102

51

53

Oatmeal, made from mix

69

70

48

Pancakes, buckwheat, gluten-free

102

29

29

Pastry

59

46

26

BEVERAGES

 

 

 

Coca Cola, soft drink

63

10

6.3

Smoothie, raspberry

33

16

5.6

Smoothie drink, soy, banana

30

8.8

2.8

Apple juice

40

11.6

4.8

Apple juice, pure, clear, unsweetened

44

12

5.2

Apple juice, pure, cloudy, unsweetened

37

11.2

4

Carrot juice, freshly made

43

9.2

4

Cranberry juice cocktail

68

14.4

9.6

Grapefruit juice, unsweetened

48

8.8

4.4

Orange juice

50

10.4

5.2

Pineapple juice, unsweetened

46

13.6

6.4

Tomato juice, canned, no added sugar

38

3.6

1.6

Sports drinks

 

 

 

Gatorade

78

6

4.8

BREADS

 

 

 

Bagel, white, frozen

72

50

36

Baguette, white, plain

95

50

48

Rye-kernel bread, pumpernickel

41

40

17

Light rye

68

47

33

Sourdough rye

53

40

21

Cracked wheat kernel (bulgur) bread

53

67

36

White-wheat-flour bread, hard, toasted, Italian

73

50

37

Wonder, enriched white bread

73

47

33

English Muffin bread

77

47

37

9-Grain Multi-Grain

43

47

20

Sourdough wheat

54

47

25

100% Whole-grain bread

51

43

23

Unleavened bread

 

 

 

Pita bread, white

57

57

33

BREAKFAST CEREALS AND RELATED PRODUCTS

 

 

 

All-Bran (Kellogg’s, Battle Creek, MI, USA)

38

77

30

Cornflakes

92

87

80

Cream of Wheat, Instant

74

12

8.8

Hot cereal, apple and cinnamon

37

73

27

Hot cereal, unflavored

25

63

17

Alpen Muesli

55

63

35

Muesli

66

80

57

Muesli, Swiss Formula

56

53

30

Oat bran, raw

59

50

33

Puffed Wheat

67

67

43

Rice Krispies (Kellogg’s)

82

87

73

Shredded Wheat

67

67

43

Special K (Kellogg’s, USA)

69

70

47

BREAKFAST CEREAL BARS

 

 

 

Crunchy Nut Cornflakes bar

72

87

63

Fibre Plus bar

78

77

60

Fruity-Bix bar, wild berry, wheat biscuit

51

63

31

Corn

 

 

 

Cornmeal, boiled in salted water 2 min

68

8.7

6

Sweet corn, on the cob, boiled 20 min

48

20

9.3

Sweet corn

60

22

13

Sweet corn, whole kernel, canned

46

19

8.7

Sweet corn, frozen, reheated in microwave

47

22

11

Rice, white

 

 

 

White, boiled white

64

24

15

Long grain, boiled

56

27

15

Basmati, white, boiled

58

25

15

Brown, steamed

55

22

12

Instant rice, white, cooked 6 min

87

28

24

Puffed, white, cooked 5 min

74

28

21

Rye and wheat

     

Rye, whole kernels (dry)

38

76

26

Wheat, whole kernels (dry)

34

68

28

Durum wheat, precooked in pouch

40

31

13

Semolina, steamed/roasted and water gelatinized

55

7.3

4

Cracked wheat (bulgur or bourghul)

48

17

8

COOKIES

 

 

 

Graham Wafers

74

72

56

Oatmeal

54

68

36

Puffed rice cakes

78

84

68

Vanilla Wafers

77

72

56

CRACKERS

 

 

 

Breton wheat crackers

67

56

40

Corn Thins, puffed corn cakes, gluten-free

87

80

72

Puffed rice cakes

78

84

68

Rye crispbread

63

64

40

Stoned Wheat Thins

67

68

48

Water cracker

71

72

52

DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ALTERNATIVES

 

 

 

Ice cream, regular

61

26

16

Ice-cream, low-fat (1.2% fat) (Prestige Light rich vanilla)

47

20

10

Ice cream, premium (high-fat)

38

18

7

Milk, full-fat

27

4.8

1.2

Milk, skim

32

5.2

1.6

Milk, low-fat, chocolate, with sugar

34

10

3.5

Pudding

44

16

7

Yogurt

36

4.5

1.5

Low-fat, fruit, sugar

33

16

5

Low-fat, fruit, aspartame

14

6.5

1

Soy milk, full-fat (3%), 0 mg Cal, Original

44

6.8

3.2

Soy milk, reduced-fat (1.5%), 120 mg Calcium

44

6.8

3.2

Soy smoothie drink, banana, 1% fat

30

8.8

2.8

Soy yogurt, peach and mango, 2% fat

50

13

6.5

FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCTS

 

 

 

Apples, raw

38

13

5

Apricots, raw

57

7.5

4.2

Apricots, dried

31

47

15

Banana, raw

52

47

10

Cherries, raw

22

10

2.5

Dates, dried

103

67

70

Figs, dried, tenderized

61

43

27

Grapefruit, raw

25

9.2

2.5

Grapes, raw

46

15

6.7

Kiwi fruit, raw

53

10

5

Mango, raw

51

14

6.7

Oranges, raw

42

9.2

4.2

Paw paw and papaya, raw

59

14

8.3

Peach, raw

42

9.2

4.2

Peach, canned in light syrup

52

15

7.5

Pear, raw

33

11

3.3

Pineapple (Ananas comosus), raw

59

11

5.8

Pineapple juice, unsweetened

46

14

6

Plum, raw

39

10

4

Prunes, pitted

29

55

17

Raisins

64

73

47

Strawberries, fresh, raw

40

2.5

1

Strawberry jam

51

67

33

Strawberry processed fruit bars

90

87

77

Watermelon, raw

72

5

3.4

LEGUMES

 

 

 

Baked beans

48

10

4.7

Beans, dried, boiled

29

20

6

Chickpeas (Garbanzo beans)

28

20

5.5

Haricot and navy beans

38

21

8

Kidney beans

28

17

4.7

Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Linn)

20

17

3.3

Lentils

29

12

3.3

Lentils, green

30

11

3.3

Lentils, red

26

12

3.2

Lima beans, baby, frozen, reheated in microwave

32

20

6.7

Mung beans

31

11

3.3

Peas, dried, boiled

22

6

1.3

Pinto beans, dried, boiled

39

17

6.7

Soya beans

18

4

1

Split peas, yellow, boiled 20 min

32

13

4

MEAL-REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS

 

 

 

Hazelnut and apricot bar

42

44

18

L.E.A.N Fibergy bar, harvest oat

45

58

26

L.E.A.N (Life long) Nutribar, peanut

30

48

15

L.E.A.N (Life long) Nutribar

32

48

16

Pure-protein bar, peanut butter

22

11

2.5

Ultra pure-protein shake, cappuccino

47

2.1

1

MIXED MEALS AND CONVENIENCE FOODS

 

 

 

Pizza, plain baked dough, served with parmesan cheese and tomato sauce (Italy)

80

27

22

Pizza, Super Supreme, pan (11.4% fat)

36

24

9

Pizza, Super Supreme, thin and crispy

30

22

7

Pizza, Vegetarian Supreme, thin and crispy (7.8% fat)

49

25

12

Sausages

28

3

1

Spaghetti bolognaise, homemade

52

13

6.9

Sushi

52

37

19

White bread with toppings

 

 

 

White bread with butter

59

48

29

White bread with skim milk cheese

55

47

26

White and whole-meal wheat bread with peanut butter

59

44

26

PASTA AND NOODLES

 

 

 

Capellini

45

25

11

Corn pasta, gluten-free

78

23

18

Fettucine, egg

40

26

10

Instant noodles

47

22

11

Linguine

46

27

12

Macaroni

47

27

13

Ravioli, durum wheat flour, meat-filled

39

21

8.3

Rice noodles, freshly made, boiled

40

22

8.3

Rice pasta, brown, boiled 16 min

92

21

19

Spaghetti, white, boiled 5 min

32

27

8.3

Spaghetti, white or type NS, boiled

44

27

12

Spirali, durum wheat, white, boiled

43

24

11

SNACK FOODS AND CONFECTIONERY

 

 

 

Chocolate, milk, plain

43

56

24

Chocolate, white

44

58

26

Corn chips

63

52

33

Apricot filled fruit bar

50

68

34

Jelly beans

78

93

73

Mars Bar (M & M/Mars, USA)

68

67

45

Popcorn

72

55

40

Pop Tarts, double chocolate

 70

70

48

Potato crisps

54

42

22

Pretzels, oven-baked, traditional wheat

83

67

53

Snack bar, apple cinnamon

40

58

24

Snack bar, peanut butter and choc-chip

37

54

20

Nuts

 

 

 

Cashew nuts, salted

22

26

6

Peanuts

14

12

2

SPORTS BARS

 

 

 

Power Bar

56

65

37

Ironman PR bar, chocolate

39

40

15

SOUPS

 

 

 

Black bean

64

11

6.8

Green pea, canned

66

16

11

Lentil, canned

44

8.5

1.6

Minestrone, Traditional

39

7.2

2.8

Noodle soup (traditional Turkish with stock and noodles)

1

3.6

0

Split pea

60

11

6.4

Tomato soup

38

6.8

2.4

SUGARS AND SUGAR ALCOHOLS

 

 

 

Organic agave cactus nectar, light

11

80

10

Fructose

19

100

20

Glucose

99

100

100

Honey

55

72

40

Lactose

46

100

47

Maltose

105

100

105

Sucrose

68

100

69

Malbit CH (99% maltitol)

73

100

71

Xylitol

8

100

9

VEGETABLES

 

 

 

Broad beans

79

14

11

Green peas

48

8.8

3.8

Pumpkin

75

5

3.8

Sweet corn

54

21

11

Root vegetables

 

 

 

Beetroot

64

8.8

6.2

Carrots, raw

16

10

1.3

Cassava, boiled, with salt

46

27

12

Parsnips

97

15

15

Potato

     

Ontario, white, baked in skin

60

20

12

Baked, russet Burbank potatoes

85

20

17

Boiled or cooked, white

50

19

9.3

Canned potatoes

63

12

7.3

French fries, frozen, reheated in microwave

75

19

15

Instant mashed potato

85

13

11

Mashed potato

74

13

10

French fries, frozen, reheated in microwave

75

19

15

Potato, peeled, steamed 1 h

65

18

12

Sweet potato

61

19

11

Tapioca (Manihot utilissima), steamed

70

7.2

4.9

Yam

37

24

8.7

Arabic and Turkish

 

 

 

Hummus (chickpea salad dip)

6

17

1

Lebanese bread (white, unleaved), hummus, falafel and tabbouleh

86

38

33

Stuffed grapevine leaves (rice and lamb)

30

15

5

Turkish bread, white-wheat flour

87

57

50

Turkish bread, whole wheat

49

51

27

Asian

 

 

 

Curry rice (Japan)

67

41

27

Jasmine rice, white, cooked in rice cooker

109

28

31

Low-protein white rice with dried sea

70

40

28

White rice with salted dried plum (umeboshi) (Japan)

80

33

26

White rice with sea algae rolled in sheet of toasted sea algae (Japan)

77

34

26

South American

 

 

 

Corn tortilla (Mexican)

52

48

24

Wheat tortilla (Mexican)

30

52

16

Wheat tortilla served with refried pinto beans and tomato sauce

28

18

5

The data presented is for selected foods from the International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values 2002, by Kaye Foster-Powell, Susanna HA Holt, and Janette C Brand-Miller. Glycemic index for most foods is determined based on time period of 2 to 3 hours from consumption. Some values are slightly rounded, and some more widely used foods have averaged value based on up to several sources. Note that all three values GI, % carb. and GL, vary somewhat with actual foods.

Bakery products, breads, snack foods, white bread and Asian foods tend to have high glycemic load; breakfast cereals and cookies tend to be high to very high. Whole grains tend to cross into high if measured by dry weight, but no one eats them dry; they are low when cooked, and tend to be moderate in whole-grain breads. Most other foods in the table are moderate to low, including pasta (surprise, surprise).

It should be noted that most any carbohydrate-containing food, if processed or made to have its carbohydrate content highly concentrated and/or significant amount of sugars added,

can be turned into high to very high glycemic load food.

For that reason, checking out the label for sugar and refined carbohydrate content is generally recommended with processed foods.

Also, some foods cause insulin response disproportionate to their glycemic index/load, and some foods with little or no carbohydrates - like lean meat and protein in general - still can cause significant insulin response. Since it is insulin and related metabolic pathways that are instrumental to adverse health effect of high-glycemic diets, this is something to keep in mind. More recent measure for food effect on the insulin level itself is insulin index; however, available database is still rather limited.

The best bet is, as always, balanced, diversified diet. Occasional high-glycemic food, in moderation, is not likely to do harm, unless the insulin regulatory pathway is already seriously compromised by a disease, by far the most widespread form being diabetes.

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